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Models and concepts of life and intelligence

In Mind and Nature, Bateson detailed what he considered to be criteria of mind, qualities that were necessary and sufficient for something to recall the mind:

1 A mind is an aggregate of interacting parts or components.

2 The interaction between parts of mind is triggered by difference. For instance, perception depends on changes in stimuli.

3 Mental process requires collateral energy.

4 Mental process requires circular (or more complex) chains of determination. The idea of reciprocal causation, or feedback, is very important one and is fundamental to mental processes.

5 In mental process, the effects of difference are to be regarded as transforms (i.e. coded versions) of the difference which preceded them. Effects are not the same as their causes; the map is not the same as the territory.

James Kennedy/Russell C.Eberhardt
SWARM INTELLIGENCE
Academic Press 2001 pg 3

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