Begriff der Information: Niklas Luhmann: Systemtheorie pg 288

Robert Wright
Vintage Books 2000
pg 243
Cultural information, like all previous forms of organic information, was created to preserve and protect genetic information.
Viewed against the backdrop of all of life, then, culture was in one sense nothing new: just another dataprocessing system invented by natural selection to marshal energy and matter in ways that preserve DNA. But it was the first of these systems that began to take on a life of its own, inaugurating a whole new kind of evolution. Natural selection, after inventing brainier and brainier forms of DNA, long ago invented brains—and then finally, in our species, invented a particularly impressive brain, a brain that could sponsor a whole new kind of natural selection.
One of the first cultural evolutionists to emphasize energy technologies was Leslie White. Indeed, some mark the mid"What holds systems together?" is "as fundamental to sociology as it is to biology," but he couldn't carry the analysis further. Presumably the key was a "force," but in the social sciences we have no name for this force unless we call it solidarity," and "what its name, if any, is in biology, we do not know."
Well, now we do. In societies, in organisms, in cells, the magic glue is information. Information is what synchronizes the parts of the whole and keeps them in touch with each other as they collectively resist disruption and decay. Information is what allows life to defy the spirit, though not the letter, of the second law of thermodynamics.
Information marshals the energy needed to build and replenish the structures that the entropic currents of time tirelessly erode. And this information isn't some mysterious "force," but, rather, physical stuff: the patterned sound waves that my vocal chords send to your ear, the firing of neurons in a brain, the hormones that regulate blood sugar, the cyclic AMP molecule in a bacterium. Information is a structured form of matter or energy whose generic function is to sustain and protect structure. It is what directs matter and energy to where they are needed, and in so doing brushes entropy aside, so that order can grow locally even as it declines universally—so that life can exist.
Ever since the primordial ooze, information technology has stayed at the center of the story. From DNA to the brain to the Internet, information processors keep spawning bigger information processors, and being subsumed by them. Life keeps violating the spirit of the second law on a grander and grander scale. Only by seeing this epic story in its full sweep—not just the last 30,000 years, but the previous several billion—can we address the question of whether it had, in any sense, an author.


Suhrkamp 1988
pg. 22 Keywords: Wissenschaft von Geist und Ordnung - daß ein sehr großer Teil der wissenschaftlichen Grundstruktur des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts unangemessen oder irrelevant für die Probleme und Phänomene war, mit denen es Biologen und Verhaltenswissenschaftler zu tun hatten - Kausalketten aufzuzeigen, die auf Kräfte und Einflüsse zurückgeführt werden konnten - Mathematik war überwiegend quantitativ, Betonung von Kräften und Einflüssen - Energie - psychische Energie -
Ursprungs von Ordnung - Die Gesetze der Erhaltung von Materie und Energie bleiben weiterhin getrennt von den Gesetzen der Ordnung, der negativen Entropie und der Information -
Ordnung wird als eine.Sache des Aussortierens und des Teilens gesehen. Aber der wesentliche Begriff bei allem Aussortieren ist, daß jeder Unterschied später einen anderen Unterschied verursachen soll. Wenn wir schwarze Bälle aus weißen aussortieren oder kleine aus großen, soll dem Unterschied zwischen den Bällen ein solcher in ihrer Lokalisierung folgen - die Bälle der einen Klasse in einen Sack, die der anderen in einen anderen. Für eine solche Operation brauchen wir etwas wie ein Sieb, eine Schwelle oder, par excellence, ein Sinnesorgan. Es ist daher verständlich, daß ein wahrnehmendes Einzelwesen erfunden wurde, um diese Funktion auszuüben, eine ansonsten unwahrscheinliche Ordnung zu schaffen. - Eng verknüpft mit dem Sortieren und Teilen ist das Geheimnis der Klassifizierung, dem später unter den aussergewöhnlichen menschlichen Leistungen das Benennen folgt.  - grundlegende Trennung zwischen den Problemen der materiellen Schöpfung und den Problemen von Ordnung und Differenzierung vor - Dichotomie von Form und Substanz - unbewußte Ableitung aus der Relation zwischen Subjekt und Prädikat in der Struktur der primitiven Sprache - geistige Prozesse, Ideen, Kommunikation, Organisation, Differenzierung, Muster und so weiter haben es eher mit Form als mit Substanz zu tun.

George Johnson
Fire in the Mind
Viking 1996
pg 110:In building a tower of abstraction, one must start with a foundation, those things that are taken as given: mass, energy, space, time. Everything else can then be defined in terms of these fundamentals. But gradually over the last half-century some scientists had come to believe that another basic ingredient was necessary: information.
Keywords: mass, energy, space, time - INFORMATION - Most of us are used to thinking of information as secondary, not fundamental, something that is made from matter and energy. Information seems like an artefact, a human invention. We impose pattern on matter and energy and use it to signal our fellow humans. Though information is used to describe the universe, it is not commonly thought of as being part of the universe itself - Information can be thought of as a measurement of distinctions, the simplest being 1 or 0, the presence or absence of a certain quality. By this measure, there is more information in something that is orderly than in a homogeneous, undifferentiated mess. - quantum theory - probability wave - measurement problem - Superpositions and Quantum Decoherence - many worlds

Steve Grand
Life and How to Make it
Phoenix 2001
Keywords: Life - LEVELS OF BEING - Autocatalysis - Membrane - templates (MUSTER - patterns) - navigare necesse est - Adaption - Adaptive behaviour- Intelligence - self-awareness - tower of persistent systems: photons, particles, atoms, molecules, autocatalytic networks, self reproducing systems, adaptive systems, intelligence and mind - society. - Autocatalytic networks that can move will survive better than those that can't. -adaptive behaviour can emerge from essentially the same kinds of regulatory mechanism already employed by autocatalytic networks. So this rudimentary form of intelligence can be seen as the next rung of the ladder of mechanisms for persistence - another level of being.- This ability to react to events after they have happened can get an organism a long way, but not nearly as far as pre-adaptation can. In other words, reacting to an existing opportunity or problem is not as effective as predicting it and changing one's behaviour appropriately before the opportunity has time to go away or before the damage is inflicted. Intelligence is perhaps a term that should be reserved for systems that can predict the future. - Reflecting on the future - Primitive forms of learning - At some stage in the history of persistent phenomena, something genuinely new and rather special emerged: a mechanism somehow became capable of being aware of its own existence and able to reflect on its own present, past and future. Such a capacity allows an organism to contemplate and cogitate, to rehearse and imagine, to place itself in someone else's shoes. This is self-awareness. - Use your own consciousness to reflect on this fact: mind is another persistent phenomena on - something that has come into being and now won't go away: Mind is not different from matter and yet it is not matter, nor is the property of matter; both matter and mind are made of the same non-stuff. - The Tower of Persistent Systems: We now have quite a towering hierarchy of more more sophisticated forms of persistence: photons, particles, atoms, molecules, autocatalytic networks, self reproducing systems, adaptive systems, intelligence and mind.

Life - Autocatalysis - Membrane - templates (MUSTER - patterns) -
navigare necesse est - brain - navigation - INTELLIGENT SEARCH

Adaption - Intelligence - self-awareness - tower of persistent systems: photons, particles, atoms, molecules, autocatalytic networks, self reproducing systems,
adaptive systems, intelligence and mind - society -

life is a dynamic, self-organizing process that relies on information to keep it intact and developing -

identification of cognition, the process of knowing, with the process of life -

informational bases of life - dynamics of information -

life is a dynamic, self-organizing process that relies on information to keep it intact and developing

information - shannon