Cognition  Kognition
Was ist Denken?

Thought is not merely expressed in words; it comes info existence through them.

Lev Vygotsky

Mark Ward

Pan Books 1999
pg 146
Keywords: Mind-Body Problem - Descartes - Thought - Human Thought - top-down - Intelligence - grounding - thinking machines - symbol manipulation - world model - situatedness - embodiment - meaning

Steve Grand

Life and How to Make it
Phoenix 2001
pg.12 : persistent phenomena - matter, life, mind and society are simply different levels or aspects of the same thing - organised machines, unorganised machines (neural networks) and self-organising machines (life) - mind - mental processes - digital computer - serial, procedural, top-down computer: a tool to create new machines that are parallel, relational and bottom-up

Cognition: Maturana, Varela, Capra

Language: Maturana27 We human beings "language" while operating in the domain of structural coupling in which we coexist as languaging beings with other languaging beings.

Why was there the sudden explosion in art and creativity which heralded the arrival of the abstract-thinking, self-aware human mind? To answer this, we have to be able to say something more about what distinguishes the mental life of an animal from that of a human. In one way, the difference is terribly simple. Animals are locked into the present tense. As numerous philosophers from John Locke to Ludwig Wittgenstein have remarked, animals live entirely in the here and now, their minds responding to whatever is currently going on around them, or to whatever urges happen to be welling up from their bodies. Humans, by contrast, have broken free of this tyranny of the moment. We have a consciousness that can wander about, thinking back to review memories from our past, or thinking forwards toimagine how life might be in the future. We can even take a step away from ourselves to contemplate the fact of our own conscious existence. John cCrone


Peter Bentley

Digital Biology
The Creation of Life Inside Computers and How It Will Affect Us
Headline Book Publishing 2001

William Calvin
How Brains Think
Basic Books 1996

Fritjof Capra
The Web of Life
The Hidden Connections
HarperCollins 2002
pg 27: 
What is life? Theory of Cognition
pg 45: The Social Dimension of Consciousness

 How Matter becomes Imagination 
 Basic 2000 

  How Brains Make Up Their Mind 
  Phoenix 1999 
Stuart Kauffman
 Oxford University Press 

George Lakoff/ Marc Johnson
John McCrone
Going Inside
A Tour round a Single Moment of Consciousness
Faber&Faber 1999
Keywords: consciousness of humans - Homo sapiens - one line of hominids suddenly became symbolically minded and self-aware. The only possible explanation for this overnight change appears to be the development of language - or, more precisely, of articulate, rapidly spoken and grammatical speech - communication - symbol-based system of communication - Words must have come before grammar - sentences always have the three fundamental components of a subject, a verb, and an object - a doer, an action, and a done to. The story they tell is a straight-line, cause-and-effect tale of who did what to whom - Grammatical speech put a motor into human thought, allowing our minds to break free of the tyranny of the present. We could then start going places in both our imagination and our memories. Our brains are still basically the same as an animal's, always reacting to whateverhas just been placed in front of them, but with words we can star feeding our brain fake moments - pseudo angles in. And this control over our state of mental representation gave us two new powers in particular: recollective memory and self-awareness

Humberto Maturana
Autopoiesis, Stuctural Coupling and Cognition
Cybernetics&Human Knowing vol9,2002

Gerhard Roth
Das Gehirn und seine Wirklichkeit
Kognitive Neurobiologie
Suhrkamp 1997

Michael Tomasello
The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition
Harvard University Press 200

Francisco Varela
Ethical Know-How 
Action,Wisdom, and Cognition 
Stanford University Press 1999 

Mark Ward
Pan Books 1999
pg 146

Charles Whitehead
Social Mirrors and Shared Exteriential  Worlds
Journal of Consciousness Studies
Vol.8, no.4 2001


 Index Cognition