Kevin Kelly
Out of Control
Perseus Books 1994

pg 10

FLOCKING - A flock is not a big bird. The flock is more than the sum of the birds -
William Morton WHEELER, the ant pioneer (The Ant Colony as an Organism, 1911), started calling the bustling cooperation of an insect colony a "superorganism" to clearly distinguish it from the metaphorical use of "organism." - - EMERGENCE: Wheeler saw "emergent properties" within the superorganism superseding the resident properties of the collective ants. Wheeler said the superorganism of the hive "emerges" from the mass of ordinary insect organisms. And he meant emergence as science - a technical, rational explanation - not mysticism or alchemy -
causality - circular causality: the concept of emergence signaled a different variety of causation. Here 2 + 2 does not equal 4; it does not even surprise with 5. In the logic of emergence, 2 + 2 = apples. "The emergent step, though it may seem more or less saltatory [a leap], is best regarded as a qualitative change of direction, or critical turning-point, in the course of events.

Keywords: persisting vortex - whirlpool persists, essentially unchanged, dancing on the edge of collapse. "We are not stuff that abides, but patterns that perpetuate themselves," wrote Norbert Wiener. -

There are two extreme ways to structure "moreness." At one extreme, you can construct a system as a long string of sequential operations. At the other far extreme, we find many systems ordered as a patchwork of parallel operations, very much as in the neural network of a brain or in a colony of ants. swarm model
These two poles of the organization of moreness exist only in theory because all systems in real life are mixtures of these two extremes. Some large systems lean to the sequential model (the factory); others lean to the web model (the telephone system). - networks, complex adaptive systems, swarm systems, vivisystems, or collective systems


...The Atom is the icon of 20th century science. The Atom is the past. The symbol of science for the next century is the dynamical Net. - The Net is the archetype - always the same picture - displayed to represent all circuits, all intelligence, all interdependence, all things economic and social and ecological, all communications, all democracy, all groups, all large systems. - The Net is an emblem of multiples. Out of it comes swarm being - distributed being - spreading the self over the entire web so that no part can say, "I am the I." It is irredeemably social, unabashedly of many minds. - A dynamic network is one of the few structures that incorporates the dimension of time. It honors internal change. We should expect to see net­works wherever we see constant irregular change

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